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Taiwan flag
Republic of China
Zhonghuá Mínguó
   Taiwan has a rather particular history as it was founded in 1949 with the escape of General Chiang Kai-shek on the island of Formosa following the proclamation of the People's Republic of China, with consequent political-military frictions in the following years. In addition to the main island located 160 km east of China there are other smaller islands, the territory is flat in the western part, mountainous in the central-eastern one; Taiwan is one of the leading countries of the Asian economy and has focused in particular on high technology.
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Area 36,197 km² (13,976 sq mi)
Population 23,124,000 inh. (2011 census)
Population 23,195,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 641 inh/km² (1,660 inh/mi²)
Capital Taipei (2,563,000 pop., 9,079,000 urban aggl.)
Currency New Taiwan dollar
Languages Chinese (official), Formosan languages
Life expectancy M 78 years, F 84 years
Location in Asia


Surrounded by the Pacific Ocean


Largest cities
New Taipei 4,021,000 pop., 9,079,000 urban aggl.
Taipei 2,563,000 pop.
Taichung 2,450,000 pop.
Kaohsiung 2,360,000 pop.
Taoyuan 2,272,000 pop.
Tainan 1,137,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Yushan 3,952 m (12,966 ft)
Longest rivers
Zhuoshui 187 km (116 mi)
Gaoping 171 km (106 mi)
Tamsui 159 km (99 mi)
Largest lakes
Sun Moon Lake 7.9 km² (3.1 sq mi)
Largest islands
Taiwan 35,887 km² (13,856 sq mi)
Kinmen 134 km² (52 sq mi)
Orchid 45 km² (17.4 sq mi)


   Taiwan is administratively divided into 13 counties, 6 special municipalities, corresponding to the major cities of the country and 3 cities, for a total of 22 entities; the two counties of Hualien and Nantou, in the central-eastern part of the territory, are the two entities with the largest area, while the special municipality of New Taipei is the most populated, with just over 4 million inhabitants.

   There are 17 cities with more than one hundred thousand inhabitants, including 6 over a million people, corresponding to the 6 special municipalities of Taiwan; as can be seen from the second map, almost all the major urban centers are located along the western strip of the territory, with the exception of Hualien and Taitung, which barely exceed the threshold of one hundred thousand people.