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Estonia flag
Republic of Estonia
Eesti Vabariik
   Estonia is the northernmost of the Baltic countries and gained independence in 1992 after the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The territory is flat and hilly, rich in forests, waters and islands in the Baltic Sea; since May 2004 Estonia is also part of the European Union.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 45,339 km² (17,505 sq mi)
Population 1,332,000 inh. (2021 census)
Population density 29 inh/km² (76 inh/mi²)
Capital Tallinn (438,000 pop.)
Currency Euro
Human development index 0.890 (31st place)
Languages Estonian (official), Russian
Life expectancy M 73 years, F 81 years
Location in Europe


Latvia SOUTH
Russia EAST
Baltic Sea NORTH and WEST


Largest cities
Tallinn 438,000 pop.
Tartu 95,200 pop.
Narva 54,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Suur Munamägi 317 m (1,040 ft)
Longest rivers
Võhandu 162 km (101 mi)
Pärnu 144 km (89 mi)
Põltsamaa 135 km (84 mi)
Largest lakes
Peipsi Järv 3,555 km² (1,373 sq mi) total, including Russian section
Vortsjärv 271 km² (105 sq mi)
Largest islands
Saaremaa 2,671 km² (1,031 sq mi)
Hiiumaa 989 km² (382 sq mi)
Muhu 198 km² (76 sq mi)
Vormsi 93 km² (36 sq mi)


   Estonia is divided into 15 counties, that of Pärnu in the central-western part is the largest, while that of Harju, where the capital is located, hosts almost half of the population, in just under 10% of the territory.

   Only 14 inhabited centers exceed 10,000 inhabitants, not even one hundred thousand, if we exclude Tallinn; they are located either on the northern coastal strip on the Baltic Sea or in the central-southern part.