Home > Africa > Madagascar
Madagascar flag
Republic of Madagascar
Repoblikan'i Madagasikara
République de Madagascar
   Madagascar is the largest and indeed the only island of a certain size in Africa; it is located in the Indian Ocean off the coast of Mozambique, from which it is about 350 km in the narrowest part of the homonymous channel. The island is flat especially along the western coasts, while in the central part we have a plateau bordered by a mountain range that reaches almost 3,000 meters in height; the economy is rather underdeveloped and makes Madagascar one of the poorest countries in the world.
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Area 591,896 km² (228,532 sq mi)
Population 25,674,000 inh. (2018 census)
Population 30,851,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 52 inh/km² (135 inh/mi²)
Capital Antananarivo (1,274,000 pop., 2,673,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Malagasy ariary
Human development index 0.501 (173rd place)
Languages Malagasy, French (both official)
Life expectancy M 65 years, F 68 years
Location in Africa


Surrounded by the Indian Ocean


Largest cities
Antananarivo 1,274,000 pop., 2,673,000 urban aggl.
Toamasina 326,000 pop.
Antsirabe 246,000 pop.
Mahajanga 246,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Maromokotro 2,876 m (9,436 ft)
Longest rivers
Mangoky 564 km (350 mi)
Onilahy 525 km (326 mi)
Betsiboka 525 km (326 mi)
Largest lakes
Lake Alaotra 900 km² (347 sq mi)
Largest islands
Madagascar 586,500 km² (226,449 sq mi)
Nosy Be 312 km² (120 sq mi)
Nosy Boraha 222 km² (86 sq mi)


   Madagascar is administratively divided into 22 regions, of which two, Atsimo-Andrefana and Sofia, with an area greater than 50,000 square kilometers; the two most populous regions are those of Analamanga, where the capital Antananarivo is located, and of Vakinankaratra, in the same area.

   Seven cities have over 100,000 inhabitants, while in another ten there are at least 50,000 people; the main urban centers are distributed fairly evenly over the territory, with settlements both on the coastal strips and in the interior of the country.



(click to enlarge)


Nosy Ve
Nosy Ve


» See the full album
(12 photos)