Home > Asia > East Timor
East Timor flag
Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste
Repúblika Demokrátika Timor Lorosa'e
República Democrática de Timor-Leste
   East Timor (or Timor-Leste) is one of the most recently formed countries as it gained independence from Indonesia (which maintains more than half of the island's total territory) in 2002, after many years of armed clashes. Timor is part of the archipelago of the Lesser Sunda Islands, is located about 600 km from the Australian coast and the territory is mainly mountainous.
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Area 15,007 km² (5,794 sq mi)
Population 1,184,000 inh. (2015 census)
Population 1,341,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 89 inh/km² (231 inh/mi²)
Capital Dili (245,000 pop.)
Currency United States dollar
Human development index 0.607 (140th place)
Languages Portuguese, Tetum (official), Indonesian, English
Life expectancy M 67 years, F 71 years
Location in Asia


Indonesia WEST and SOUTH (Oecusse)
Pacific Ocean NORTH, EAST and SOUTH


Largest cities
Dili 245,000 pop.
Baucau 17,400 pop.
Highest mountains
Tatamailau 2,986 m (9,797 ft)
Longest rivers
Laclo 80 km (50 mi)
Largest lakes
Ira Lalaro 10 to 55 km² (4 to 21 sq mi), depending on the season
Largest islands
Timor 30,377 km² (11,729 sq mi) total, 14,856 km² (5,736 sq mi) belong to East Timor
Atauro 140 km² (54 sq mi)
Jaco 11 km² (4.2 sq mi)


   East Timor is administratively divided into 13 districts, including that of Oecusse (or Ambeno), which constitutes an exclave in Indonesian territory; Viqueque and Lautem are the two largest districts, while those of the capital Dili, Ermera and Bacau are the most populated and only over one hundred thousand inhabitants.

   In the country there is only one city, the aforementioned Dili, with all the others that are at most large villages and never exceed twenty thousand inhabitants; the distribution of the main urban centers is however quite homogeneous, with settlements both along the coasts and in the inland.