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Mongolia flag
Mongol uls
   Mongolia is located in central-eastern Asia and is one of the least densely populated countries on the planet; the southern section of the territory is occupied by the Gobi desert, while the north-eastern part is characterized by mountainous reliefs that exceed 4,000 meters in height. About 30% of the population lives in rural areas, often without a permanent home, but dedicated to farming and nomadism, even if this percentage is constantly and significantly decreasing.
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Area 1,564,116 km² (603,909 sq mi)
Population 3,197,000 inh. (2020 census)
Population 3,455,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 2.2 inh/km² (5.7 inh/mi²)
Capital Ulaanbaatar (1,466,000 pop., 1,602,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Mongolian tugrik
Human development index 0.739 (96th place)
Languages Mongolian (official), Kazakh
Life expectancy M 66 years, F 74 years
Location in Asia


Russia NORTH
China SOUTH and EAST


Largest cities
Ulaanbaatar 1,466,000 pop., 1,602,000 urban aggl.
Erdenet 102,000 pop.
Darchan 84,400 pop.
Highest mountains
Khuiten 4,356 m (14,291 ft)
Longest rivers
Yenisey 4,167 km (2,589 mi) total, only a small initial section is in Mongolia
Kherlen 1,254 km (779 mi) total, 1,163 km (723 mi) in Mongolia
Orkhon 1,149 km (714 mi)
Selenga 1,024 km (636 mi) total, 615 km (382 mi) in Mongolia
Largest lakes
Uvs 3,548 km² (1,370 sq mi) total, a very small portion belongs to Russia
Khövsgöl 2,768 km² (1,069 sq mi)
Khar-Us 1,497 km² (578 sq mi)
Khyargas 1,350 km² (521 sq mi)
Largest islands
Agbash (in Khar-Us Lake) 274 km² (106 sq mi)


   Mongolia is administratively divided into 22 provinces, including the capital which is a municipality with comparable status; the province of Umnugovi is the one with the largest extension, while the province of Khuvsgul is the most populated one, excluding Ulaanbaatar, which has over 10 times the inhabitants of any province.

   The difference in population between the capital and all the other Mongolian towns is enormous, with only Erdenet and Darkhan that can be considered true cities, while all the other settlements do not even reach 50,000 inhabitants.