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China flag
People's Republic of China
Zhonghua Rénmin Gòngheguó
   China is the most populous country in the world and occupies a fairly varied territory, from the Himalayan mountain ranges, to the Tibetan plateau, up to the Pacific coast to the east. Many of the inventions still today the fulcrum of human life are to be linked to the Chinese people; even as material resources China can be considered a global leader and over time has assumed an ever greater influence, both political and economic.
Government type Unitary one-party socialist republic
Area 9,572,900 km² (3,696,117 sq mi)
Population 1,411,779,000 inh. (2020 census)
Population 1,412,600,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 148 inh/km² (382 inh/mi²)
Capital Beijing (18,522,000 pop.)
Currency Chinese renminbi (yuan)
Human development index 0.768 (79th place)
Languages Chinese (official), Mongolian, Tibetan and others
Life expectancy M 74 years, F 79 years
Special Administrative Regions Hong Kong (1,114 km² - 430 sq mi, 7,413,000 pop.)
Special Administrative Regions Macau (31.3 km² - 12.1 sq mi, 682,000 pop.)
Location in Asia


Mongolia and Russia NORTH
Kazakhstan and Kyrgyzstan NORTH-WEST
Tajikistan, Afghanistan and Pakistan WEST
India, Nepal and Bhutan SOUTH-WEST
Myanmar, Laos and Vietnam SOUTH
North Korea NORTH-EAST
Pacific Ocean EAST


Largest cities
Shanghai 21,910,000 pop., 24,073,000 urban aggl.
Beijing 18,522,000 pop.
Shenzhen 17,619,000 pop.
Guangzhou 16,097,000 pop., 21,489,000 urban aggl.
Chengdu 13,568,000 pop., 14,645,000 urban aggl.
Tientsin 10,368,000 pop.
Wuhan 10,251,000 pop.
Xi'an 9,900,000 pop., 12,328,000 urban aggl.
Dongguan 9,645,000 pop., 10,646,000 urban aggl.
Chongqing 9,581,000 pop., 12,135,000 urban aggl.
Hangzhou 9,236,000 pop., 9,523,000 urban aggl.
Nanjing 7,520,000 pop., 8,422,000 urban aggl.
Shenyang 7,050,000 pop., 7,964,000 urban aggl.
Qingdao 6,229,000 pop.
Zhengzhou 5,963,000 pop., 10,959,000 urban aggl.
Suzhou 5,893,000 pop., 6,031,000 urban aggl.
Changsha 5,014,000 pop.
Hefei 5,001,000 pop.
Kunming 4,946,000 pop.
Xiamen 4,617,000 pop., 5,201,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Everest 8,848 m (29,029 ft)
K2 8,611 m (28,251 ft)
Lhotse 8,516 m (27,940 ft)
Makalu 8,463 m (27,766 ft)
Cho Oyu 8,201 m (26,906 ft)
Longest rivers
Yangtze 6,300 km (3,915 mi)
Yellow River / Huang He 5,464 km (3,395 mi)
Amur 4,444 km (2,761 mi) total, including Russian part
Mekong 4,350 km (2,703 mi) total, source and first portion in China
Irtysh 4,248 km (2,640 mi) total, only first small section in China
Indus 3,200 km (1,988 mi) total, including Pakistani and Indian sections
Brahmaputra 2,900 km (1,802 mi) total, more than half of the course is in China
Salween 2,815 km (1,749 mi) total, including parts in Myanmar and Thailand
Largest lakes
Khanka 4,190 km² (1,618 sq mi) total, 1,160 km² (448 sq mi) in China
Qinghai 4,186 km² (1,616 sq mi)
Poyang 3,210 km² (1,239 sq mi), medium surface area
Dongting 2,820 km² (1,089 sq mi)
Hulun 2,339 km² (903 sq mi)
Tai 2,250 km² (869 sq mi)
Largest islands
Hainan 33,210 km² (12,822 sq mi)
Chongming 1,041 km² (402 sq mi)


   Administratively, China is divided into 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 city municipalities, with the addition of the 2 special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macao, not included directly in the territory; the three autonomous regions of Xinjiang, Tibet and Inner Mongolia are the three largest entities, each with an area exceeding one million square kilometers; in the two most populous provinces, Guangdong and Shandong, there are over 100 million inhabitants.

   According to the census carried out in 2020 there were 7 cities over 10 million inhabitants, another 16 between this limit and 5 million and more than a hundred in all with at least 1 million people; the greatest concentration of large urban centers occurs along the coast or not far from it, especially in the areas of Shanghai and the Pearl River Delta, with Guangzhou, Hong Kong and other large cities.



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