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Afghanistan flag
Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Afganestan
Da Afganistan Islami Jomhoriyat
   Afghanistan is a largely mountainous country in Central Asia, with no access to the sea; unfortunately it is known above all for its political vicissitudes, first a long conflict with Russia, then an internal guerrilla, then the fundamentalist regime of the Taliban and in recent years it has ended up at the center of the anti-terrorism actions of the USA and NATO; all this has led Afghanistan to become one of the poorest countries in the world.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 652,864 kmē (252,072 sq mi)
Population 43,373,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 66 inh/kmē (172 inh/miē)
Capital Kabul (4,981,000 pop., 5,566,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Afghani
Human development index 0.478 (180th place)
Languages Pashto, Dari (both official), Uzbek, Turkmen
Life expectancy M 63 years, F 66 years
Location in Asia


Pakistan EAST and SOUTH
Turkmenistan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan NORTH


Largest cities
Kabul 4,981,000 pop., 5,566,000 urban aggl.
Herat 593,000 pop., 1,205,000 urban aggl.
Kandahar 540,000 pop., 695,000 urban aggl.
Mazar-i Sharif 500,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Noshaq 7,492 m (24,580 ft)
Longest rivers
Amu Darya 2,540 km (1,578 mi) total, including parts in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
Helmand 1,300 km (808 mi)
Harirud 1,100 km (684 mi) total, with the Turkmen section
Pyanj 921 km (572 mi) total, including stretch in Tajikistan
Largest lakes
Lake Hamun (artificial) 4,000 kmē (1,544 sq mi)
Zorkul 39 kmē (15 sq mi)


   Afghanistan is divided into 34 provinces, with the three largest of Helmand, Herat and Kandahar all located in the southern area of the territory and with a surface area between 50,000 and 60,000 kmē; the province of the capital Kabul is instead the most populous, with over double the inhabitants of the second one, Herat.

   Only Kabul exceeds a million inhabitants, while the next three most populated cities all have around half a million people; the geographical distribution of the main urban centers is quite unbalanced towards the northern part of the country, with several provinces devoid of proper cities.


Useful links

Afghanistan Tourism