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Pakistan flag
Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Jamhuryat Islami Pakistan
   Pakistan is located in south-central Asia to the west of India and to the south it is bounded by the Arabian Sea. The territory is quite varied, since it goes from the very high peaks of Karakoram in the north (with K2 which is the second mountain on Earth) to the wide Indus plain, a river that crosses the whole country from north to south, up to the western mountain ranges, near the borders with Afghanistan and Iran.
Government type Federal parliamentary republic
Area 796,096 km˛ (307,374 sq mi)
Area 882.363 km˛ (340,682 sq mi) with the disputed territories of Azad Kashmir and Gilgit–Baltistan
Population 207,685,000 inh. (2017 census)
Population 235,825,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 296 inh/km˛ (767 inh/mi˛)
Capital Islamabad (1,009,000 pop., 4,730,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Pakistani rupee
Human development index 0.544 (161st place)
Languages Urdu, English (both official), Punjabi
Life expectancy M 66 years, F 68 years
Location in Asia


Afghanistan NORTH-WEST
Arabian Sea (Indian Ocean) a SOUTH


Largest cities
Karachi 15,738,000 pop.
Lahore 12,306,000 pop.
Faisalabad 3,210,000 pop., 3,961,000 urban aggl.
Rawalpindi 2,098,000 pop., 4,702,000 urban aggl.
Gujranwala 2,028,000 pop., 3,292,000 urban aggl.
Peshawar 1,970,000 pop., 2.798.000 urban aggl.
Multan 1,873,000 pop., 2,598,000 urban aggl.
Hyderabad 1,734,000 pop., 2,305,000 urban aggl.
Quetta 1,023,000 pop.
Islamabad 1,009,000 pop.
Bahawalpur 763,000 pop.
Sargodha 658,000 pop., 733,000 urban aggl.
Sialkot 657,000 pop., 1,317,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
K2 8,611 m (28,251 ft)
Nanga Parbat 8,126 m (26,660 ft)
Gasherbrum I 8,080 m (26,509 ft)
Broad Peak 8,051 m (26,414 ft)
Gasherbrum II 8,035 m (26,362 ft)
Longest rivers
Indus 3,200 km (1,988 mi) total, 2,200 km (1,367 mi) in Pakistan
Sutlej 1,500 km (932 mi) total, including parts in China and India
Chenab 960 km (597 mi) total, with the Indian section
Largest lakes
Lake Manchar (artificial) 520 km˛ (201 sq mi)
Largest islands
Astola 6.5 km˛ (2.5 sq mi)


   The country is divided into 4 provinces, the district of the federal capital and 2 autonomous territories located in the disputed area with India of Kashmir; Baluchistan constitutes almost 2/5 of the surface area of Pakistan, while Punjab, with 110 million inhabitants, is by far the most populated province.

   There are 10 cities with at least 1 million inhabitants, of which 4 in Punjab, which has the greatest concentration of medium-large urban centers, while other areas of Pakistan are more sparsely populated, especially in the south-west and in the north-east of the territory.