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Iran flag
Islamic Republic of Iran
Jomhuri-ye Eslami-ye Iran
   Iran is located between the Middle and Near East, south of the Caspian Sea and has a long stretch of coast on Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman. The Iranian territory is largely made up of a plateau, bordered in various points by mountain ranges often of a certain importance, also numerous desert areas, only near the southern border with Iraq and on the Caspian coasts are there environmental conditions ideal for agriculture.
Government type Theocratic republic
Area 1,648,195 kmē (636,372 sq mi)
Population 79,926,000 inh. (2016 census)
Population 85,562,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 52 inh/kmē (134 inh/miē)
Capital Tehran (8,694,000 pop., 14,148,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Iranian rial
Human development index 0.774 (76th place)
Languages Persian Farsi (official), Turkish, Kurdish, other local languages
Life expectancy M 75 years, F 77 years
Location in Asia


Turkey and Iraq WEST
Armenia and Azerbaijan NORTH-WEST
Turkmenistan NORTH-EAST
Afghanistan and Pakistan EAST
Persian Gulf and Gulf of Oman (Indian Ocean) SOUTH


Largest cities
Teheran 8,694,000 pop., 14,148,000 urban aggl.
Mashhad 3,001,000 pop., 3,521,000 urban aggl.
Esfahan 1,961,000 pop., 2,947,000 urban aggl.
Karaj 1,592,000 pop.
Shiraz 1,566,000 pop., 1,899,000 urban aggl.
Tabriz 1,559,000 pop., 1,831,000 urban aggl.
Qom 1,201,000 pop.
Ahvaz 1,185,000 pop., 1,455,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Damavand 5,610 m (18,406 ft)
Longest rivers
Karkheh 900 km (559 mi)
Karun 830 km (516 mi)
Largest lakes
Caspian Sea 371,000 kmē (143,244 sq mi) total, shared with Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Azerbaijan
Lake Urmia 5,200 kmē (2,008 sq mi)
Namak Lake 1,800 kmē (695 sq mi)
Largest islands
Qeshm 1,491 kmē (576 sq mi)
Kish 90 kmē (35 sq mi)
Lavan 76 kmē (29 sq mi)


   Iran is divided into 31 provinces, with the south-eastern ones of Sistan-Baluchistan and Kerman being the largest, with just over 180,000 kmē each; the province of the capital Tehran, on the other hand, is clearly the most populated, with almost 14 million inhabitants, more than double that of Razavi Khorasan, which is in second place.

   The country has 8 cities with more than 1 million people, with a greater concentration of the main urban centers in the central-western area of the territory, compared to other less densely populated areas.


Useful links

Iran Tourism