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Turkey flag
Republic of Turkey
Türkiye Cumhuriyeti
   Turkey is almost entirely located in Asia, but a small area is part of Europe (equal to 3% of the total territory of the country), has thousands of kilometers of coastline distributed between the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. The territory corresponds for the most part to the Anatolian peninsula, a vast plateau that in several points rises into rather impressive mountain ranges.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 783,562 km² (302,535 sq mi)
Area 23,764 km² (9,175 sq mi) European part
Population 84,680,000 inh. (2021 census)
Population 86,409,000 inh. (2023 est.)
Population density 110 inh/km² (286 inh/mi²)
Capital Ankara (5,155,000 pop., 5,389,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Turkish lira
Human development index 0.838 (48th place)
Languages Turkish (official), Kurdish
Life expectancy M 75 years, F 81 years
Location in Asia and Europe


Greece WEST
Armenia, Azerbaijan (Naxcivan) and Iran EAST
Iraq and Syria SOUTH-EAST
Aegean Sea WEST
Mediterranean Sea SOUTH
Black Sea NORTH


Largest cities
Istanbul 15,204,000 pop., 16,079,000 urban aggl.
Ankara 5,155,000 pop., 5,389,000 urban aggl.
Izmir 2,948,000 pop.
Bursa 2,024,000 pop.
Adana 1,766,000 pop.
Gaziantep 1,715,000 pop.
Konya 1,345,000 pop.
Antalya 1,296,000 pop.
Diyarbakir 1,070,000 pop.
Mersin 1,028,000 pop., 1,110,000 urban aggl.
Kayseri 979,000 pop., 1,022,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Mount Ararat 5,137 m (16,854 ft)
Longest rivers
Euphrates 2,800 km (1,740 mi) total, 1,263 km (785 mi) in Turkey
Tigris 1,850 km (1,150 mi) total, 523 km (325 mi) in Turkey
Kizilirmak 1,355 km (842 mi)
Aras 1,072 km (666 mi) total, 548 km (341 mi) in Turkey
Sakarya 824 km (512 mi)
Largest lakes
Van 3,713 km² (1,434 sq mi)
Tuz Gölü 1,500 km² (579 sq mi)
Beysehir 656 km² (253 sq mi)
Egirdir 468 km² (181 sq mi)
Aksehir 353 km² (136 sq mi)
Largest islands
Gökçeada 287 km² (111 sq mi)
Marmara 126 km² (49 sq mi)


   Turkey is administratively divided into 81 provinces, with areas ranging from 40,814 km² of that of Konya to just 850 km² of the province of Yalova; as regards the number of inhabitants, the first 4 provinces correspond exactly to the 4 most populated cities, in the order Istanbul, Ankara, Izmir and Bursa.

   10 cities have more than 1 million inhabitants, while as many are in the range between this figure and 500,000 inhabitants; the distribution of the major urban centers is concentrated in particular in the area of Istanbul and in the central-southern area, with other areas of the territory, especially in the north-east, with a lower population density.