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Syria flag
Syrian Arab Republic
Al Jumhuriyah al ‘Arabiyah as Suriyah
   Syria is located in the Middle East to the southeast of Turkey and is bordered by the Mediterranean Sea to the west; the territory is quite varied, mostly flat in the northern and eastern part, it becomes desert in the south and there are some mountain ranges on the borders with Jordan and especially Lebanon. A civil war has been underway in the country since March 2011, which has already caused about 400,000 victims, as well as forcing millions of people to take refuge in other countries.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 185,180 km² (71,498 sq mi)
Population 22,125,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 119 inh/km² (309 inh/mi²)
Capital Damascus (1,710,000 pop., 2,510,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Syrian pound
Human development index 0.577 (150th place)
Languages Arabic
Life expectancy M 65 years, F 77 years
Location in Asia


Turkey NORTH
Lebanon and Israel WEST
Jordan SOUTH
Mediterranean Sea WEST


Largest cities
Aleppo 1,850,000 pop., 3,868,000 urban aggl.
Damascus 1,710,000 pop., 2,510,000 urban aggl.
Al-Raqqah 785,000 pop.
Homs 690,000 pop.
Al-Hasakah 615,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Mount Hermon 2,814 m (9,232 ft)
Longest rivers
Euphrates 2,800 km (1,740 mi) total, 675 km (419 mi) in Syria
Orontes 571 km (355 mi) total, including a short initial section in Lebanon
Khabur 486 km (302 mi) total, including the Turkish initial section
Largest lakes
Lake Assad (artificial) 525 km² (203 sq mi)


   Syria is administratively divided into 14 governorates, with that of Homs being the largest, while that of Damascus is just over 100 square kilometers wide and includes only the Syrian capital; the governorate of Aleppo is by far the most populated one.

   In the country there are two cities with over one million inhabitants, Aleppo and Damascus; the other main cities are located on the Mediterranean coast and in the adjacent belt or in the north-eastern part of the territory.