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Azerbaijan flag
Republic of Azerbaijan
Azerbaycan Respublikasi
   Together with Georgia and Armenia, Azerbaijan occupies that small, largely mountainous area between Turkey, Iran and Russia (in which it was incorporated until 1991). Touched to the north by the Caucasus, it is however a predominantly flat country, facing east on the largest lake in the world, the Caspian Sea, which with its oil is also the primary source of the Azerbaijani economy.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 86,600 km² (33,436 sq mi)
Population 8,922,000 inh. (2009 census)
Population 10,156,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 117 inh/km² (304 inh/mi²)
Capital Baku (2,303,000 pop., 3,081,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Azerbaijani manat
Human development index 0.745 (91st place)
Languages Azerbaijani (official), Russian, Armenian
Life expectancy M 71 years, F 76 years
Location in Asia


Russia NORTH
Armenia WEST and NORTH (Naxcivan)
Turkey WEST (Naxcivan)
The territory of Nagorno-Karabakh, located in the south-west of the country, declared itself independent on January 6, 1992, giving rise to a conflict in the region between Azerbaijan and Armenia which ended in 1994, but without a definitive solution. As things currently stand, Nagorno-Karabakh is not recognized internationally, but has its own government and de facto autonomy; it has an area of 11,458 km² and 147,000 inhabitants, all of Armenian origin (excluding a few hundred Russians, Greeks, Ukrainians and other ethnic groups), due to forced migration caused by the conflict; the capital is Stepanakert (53,700 pop.).


Largest cities
Baku 2,303,000 pop., 3,081,000 urban aggl.
Ganja 336,000 pop.
Sumgayit 309,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Bazardüzü 4,466 m (14,652 ft)
Longest rivers
Kura 1,515 km (941 mi) total, 906 km (563 mi) in Azerbaijan
Aras 1,072 km (666 mi) total, 425 km (264 mi) in Azerbaijan
Largest lakes
Caspian Sea 371,000 km² (143,244 sq mi) total, shared with Russia, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Iran
Sarysu 67 km² (26 sq mi)
Largest islands
Pirallahi (in the Caspian Sea) 14.4 km² (5.6 sq mi)


   Azerbaijan is divided into 10 economic regions, with Aran being the largest, while Absheron, where the capital Baku is also located, is the most populated; at the next administrative level we find 66 districts and 12 cities.

   About 30% of the population of Azerbaijan lives in the urban area of the capital Baku; several other areas, on the other hand, lack significant urban centers, in total there are 18 cities with 40,000 or more inhabitants.