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Bulgaria flag
Republic of Bulgaria
Republika Balgariya
   Bulgaria is located in the southeastern part of the Balkan peninsula, north of Greece and Turkey and south of Romania, to the east overlooking the Black Sea. The country is almost cut in two by the Balkan chain, has other mountainous reliefs in the southwestern part and flat areas in correspondence with the Danube and other Bulgarian rivers and near the coasts.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 110,372 km² (42,615 sq mi)
Population 6,520,000 inh. (2021 census)
Population density 59 inh/km² (153 inh/mi²)
Capital Sofia (1,183,000 pop.)
Currency Bulgarian lev
Human development index 0.795 (68th place)
Languages Bulgarian (official), Turkish, Macedonian, Romani
Life expectancy M 71 years, F 78 years
Location in Europe


Romania NORTH
Serbia and North Macedonia WEST
Greece and Turkey SOUTH
Black Sea EAST


Largest cities
Sofia 1,183,000 pop.
Plovdiv 320,000 pop.
Varna 311,000 pop.
Burgas 190,000 pop.
Ruse 125,000 pop.
Stara Zagora 123,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Musala 2,925 m (9,596 ft)
Vihren 2,914 m (9,560 ft)
Longest rivers
Danube 2,858 km (1,776 mi) total, 520 km (323 mi) in Bulgaria
Maritsa 480 km (298 mi) total, 309 km (192 mi) in Bulgaria
Struma 415 km (258 mi) total, 275 km (171 mi) in Bulgaria
Tundzha 365 km (227 mi) total, 328 km (204 mi) in Bulgaria
Iskar 352 km (219 mi)
Largest lakes
Lake Burgas 27.6 km² (10.7 sq mi)
Largest islands
Bedene 41 km² (16 sq mi)


   Bulgaria has 28 provinces, the two largest are those of Burgas and Sofia, from which the capital is excluded, which constitutes a separate district, the only one together with that of Plovdiv where there are more than 500,000 inhabitants.

   Each of the provinces, Sofia excluded, has at least one urban center over 25,000 inhabitants, almost always and only the chief town; a total of 33 cities are beyond this limit, with Plovdiv occupying the second position, just in front of the coastal city of Varna, on the Black Sea.