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India flag
Republic of India
Bharatiya Ganarajya
   India is the second most populous country on the planet after China and has exceeded one billion people at the end of the last century; India corresponds to the peninsula of the same name and has thousands of kilometers of coastline on the ocean which takes its name from this country. The territory has a great variety of landscapes, from the mountains of the Himalayas to the north, to the valleys of the main rivers such as the Ganges and the Brahmaputra, passing through the highlands of the central-southern area; the social and ethnic outline also has a myriad of shades.
Government type Federal parliamentary republic
Area 3,287,263 kmē (1,269,219 sq mi)
Population 1,210,855,000 inh. (2011 census)
Population 1,375,586,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 418 inh/kmē (1,084 inh/miē)
Capital New Delhi (258,000 pop., 32,226,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Indian rupee
Human development index 0.633 (132nd place)
Languages Hindi, English (both official), regional languages
Life expectancy M 69 years, F 73 years
Location in Asia


China, Nepal and Bhutan NORTH
Myanmar and Bangladesh EAST
Indian Ocean WEST, SOUTH and EAST


Largest cities
Mumbai 12,442,000 pop., 24,973,000 urban aggl.
Delhi 11,035,000 pop., 32,226,000 urban aggl.
Bangalore 8,495,000 pop., 15,386,000 urban aggl.
Hyderabad 6,993,000 pop., 10,494,000 urban aggl.
Ahmedabad 5,634,000 pop., 8,009,000 urban aggl.
Chennai 4,647,000 pop., 12,395,000 urban aggl.
Surat 4,502,000 pop., 6,538,000 urban aggl.
Kolkata 4,497,000 pop., 18,502,000 urban aggl.
Pune 3,124,000 pop., 8,231,000 urban aggl.
Jaipur 3,046,000 pop., 4,508,000 urban aggl.
Lucknow 2,817,000 pop., 4,870,000 urban aggl.
Kanpur 2,768,000 pop., 3,988,000 urban aggl.
Nagpur 2,406,000 pop., 3,300,000 urban aggl.
Indore 1,994,000 pop., 3,575,000 urban aggl.
Patna 1,684,000 pop., 3,299,000 urban aggl.
Varanasi 1,198,000 pop., 3,380,000 urban aggl.
Allahabad 1,168,000 pop., 3,247,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Kangchenjunga 8,586 m (28,169 ft)
Nanda Devi 7,816 m (25,643 ft)
Longest rivers
Indus 3,200 km (1,988 mi) total, including Chinese and Pakistani sections
Brahmaputra 2,900 km (1,802 mi) total, including parts in China and Bangladesh
Ganges 2,480 km (1,541 mi) total, final small portion is in Bangladesh
Godavari 1,465 km (910 mi)
Krishna 1,400 km (870 mi)
Yamuna 1,370 km (851 mi)
Narmada 1,312 km (815 mi)
Largest lakes
Vembanad Lake 2,033 kmē (785 sq mi)
Chilika Lake 1,165 kmē (450 sq mi)
Largest islands
Middle Andaman 1,536 kmē (593 sq mi)
North Andaman 1,317 kmē (508 sq mi)
South Andaman 1,262 kmē (487 sq mi)
Great Nicobar 1,045 kmē (403 sq mi)
Little Andaman 707 kmē (273 sq mi)


   Administratively, India is divided into 28 states and 8 territories; with an area of over 300,000 square kilometers each Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra are the 3 entities with the largest extension, while Uttar Pradesh is the most populous, with about 231 million inhabitants, which would make it the 5th most populated state of the World if it were independent.

   In the country there are 46 cities with over 1 million inhabitants, including some of the most populous metropolises on the planet, taking into account the entire urban agglomeration, Delhi, Mumbai and Calcutta; the distribution of the major urban centers is quite homogeneous, with the exception of some north-western regions and the part of India which enters the territory of Bangladesh towards the east.