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Tajikistan flag
Republic of Tajikistan
Jumhurii Tojikiston
   Tajikistan was created by Stalin in the 1920s, when the borders of that area of the former Soviet Union were defined; it became independent in 1991 and in the following years it was the scene of a civil war. Tajikistan is located in Central Asia and is mainly mountainous, with the peaks of the Pamir that exceed 7,000 meters in height; only to the north-west and south-west there are flat areas.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 141,400 kmē (54,595 sq mi)
Population 9,662,000 inh. (2020 census)
Population density 68 inh/kmē (177 inh/miē)
Capital Dushanbe (863,000 pop., 1,468,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Tajikistani somoni
Human development index 0.685 (122nd place)
Languages Tajik (official), Russian
Life expectancy M 69 years, F 73 years
Location in Asia


Kyrgyzstan NORTH-EAST
China EAST
Afghanistan SOUTH
Uzbekistan NORTH-WEST


Largest cities
Dushanbe 863,000 pop., 1,468,000 urban aggl.
Khujand 184,000 pop.
Bokhtar 112,000 pop.
Kulob 106,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Ismoil Somoni Peak 7,495 m (24,590 ft)
Ibn Sina Peak 7,134 m (23,406 ft)
Korzhenevskoi Peak 7,105 m (23,310 ft)
Longest rivers
Amu Darya 2,540 km (1,578 mi) total, including parts in Afghanistan, Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan
Syr Darya 2,219 km (1,379 mi) total, with sections in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan and Kyrgyzstan
Pyanj 921 km (572 mi) total, with the part in Afghanistan
Zeravshan 877 km (545 mi) total, including the section in Uzbekistan
Vakhsh 786 km (488 mi) total, 524 km (326 mi) in Tajikistan
Largest lakes
Karakul 380 kmē (147 sq mi)
Sarez 86 kmē (33 sq mi)


   Tajikistan is made up of 2 provinces, the capital district, the autonomous region of Gorno-Badakhshan and the districts under the jurisdiction of the central government; Gorno-Badakhshan constitutes almost 45% of the territory but is also the least populated administrative entity, while the province of Khatlon, which occupies the southwestern part of the country, hosts the largest number of inhabitants.

   In Tajikistan there are 4 cities with more than one hundred thousand inhabitants, with the capital approaching one million people, a threshold that has been largely exceeded considering the entire urban agglomeration; the geographical distribution of the major urban centers is strongly unbalanced towards the western part of the territory, where there are some more flat areas.