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Thailand flag
Kingdom of Thailand
Ratcha Anachak Thai
   Thailand is the most developed of the countries of the Indochinese Peninsula, also thanks to the fact that it did not have a colonial past; in the southern part it is bounded by the sea both to the east and to the southwest. The territory is mountainous in the northern part, the central area is almost entirely flat, while numerous islands border the coastal strip, especially that along the Andaman Sea.
Government type Constitutional monarchy
Area 513,120 kmē (198,117 sq mi)
Population 65,982,000 inh. (2010 census)
Population 66,171,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 129 inh/kmē (334 inh/miē)
Capital Bangkok (5,528,000 pop., 18,007,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Thai baht
Human development index 0.800 (66th place)
Languages Thai (official), Lao, Chinese, Malay
Life expectancy M 74 years, F 81 years
Location in Asia


Malaysia SOUTH
Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) WEST
Gulf of Thailand (Pacific Ocean) SOUTH-EAST


Largest cities
Bangkok 5,528,000 pop., 18,007,000 urban aggl.
Nonthaburi 251,000 pop.
Pak Kret 189,000 pop.
Hat Yai 149,000 pop.
Chao Phraya Surasak 146,000 pop.
Surat Thani 132,000 pop.
Chiang Mai 123,000 pop., 693,000 urban aggl.
Nakhon Ratchasima 123,000 pop., 657,000 urban aggl.
Udon Thani 120,000 pop.
Pattaya 118,000 pop., 1,373,000 urban aggl.
Khon Kaen 111,000 pop.
Nakhon Si Thammarat 100,000 pop.
Phuket 77,800 pop., 515,000 urban aggl.
Rayong 62,400 pop., 612,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Doi Inthanon 2,565 m (8,415 ft)
Longest rivers
Mekong 4,350 km (2,703 mi) total, 900 km (537 mi) in Thailand
Salween 2,815 km (1,749 mi) total, only for a small portion, near the mouth, flows on the border between Thailand and Myanmar
Chao Phraya (with Nan) 1,112 km (691 mi)
Largest lakes
Songkhla Lake 1,040 kmē (402 sq mi)
Bueng Boraphet 212 kmē (82 sq mi)
Nong Han 125 kmē (48 sq mi)
Largest islands
Phuket 543 kmē (210 sq mi)
Ko Samui 229 kmē (88 sq mi)
Ko Chang 217 kmē (84 sq mi)


   Thailand is divided into 77 provinces, locally called changwats, with the capital Bangkok constituting a special status area; the two provinces of Chiang Mai and Nakhon Ratchasima are the largest and sole over 20,000 square kilometers, with the latter also being the most populated after Bangkok, albeit with a great gap.

   In the country there are no other large cities outside of Bangkok, given that each of the remaining major urban centers remains below the limit of 300,000 inhabitants; the distribution of the main cities is quite unbalanced towards the metropolitan area of the capital and the area immediately to the southeast, with the provinces of Chon Buri and Rayong, while in the other regions the cities often have a smaller population.