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Netherlands flag
Kingdom of the Netherlands
Koninkrijk der Nederlanden
   The Netherlands is located in central-western Europe and overlooks the North Sea to the north-west, it is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. There are no mountains in the Netherlands, which in fact are about 1/3 below sea level, thanks to human works to tear up useful land over the centuries.
Government type Parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Area 41,543 km² (16,040 sq mi)
Area 41,865 km² / 16,164 sq mi (including the Dutch Caribbean)
Population 17,508,000 inh. (2021)
Population 17,859,000 inh. (2023 est.)
Population density 430 inh/km² (1,113 inh/mi²)
Capital Amsterdam (911,000 pop., 1,654,000 urban aggl.)
Capital The Hague (548.000 ab., 2.881.000 urban aggl.) seat of government
Currency Euro
Currency U.S. dollar in the Dutch Caribbean
Human development index 0.941 (10th place)
Languages Dutch (official), Frisian, English, Papiamento
Life expectancy M 80 years, F 83 years
Overseas Territories Aruba (179 km² - 69 sq mi, 106,200 pop.)
Overseas Territories Curacao (444 km² - 171 sq mi, 147,000 pop.)
Overseas Territories Sint Maarten (34 km² - 13 sq mi, 43,100 pop.)
Location in Europe


Germany EAST


Largest cities
Amsterdam 911,000 pop., 1,654,000 urban aggl.
Rotterdam 660,000 pop., 2,881,000 urban aggl.
The Hague 558,000 pop.
Utrecht 364,000 pop., 732,000 urban aggl.
Eindhoven 241,000 pop.
Groningen 235,000 pop.
Tilburg 226,000 pop.
Almere 220,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Mount Scenery 862 m (2,828 ft) in the Dutch Caribbean
Vaalserberg 323 m (1,060 ft)
Longest rivers
Rhine 1,320 km (820 mi) total, only last short section is in the Netherlands, with different branches (Nederrijn, IJssel and Waal)
Meuse 925 km (575 mi) total, including parts in France and Belgium
Scheldt 350 km (217 mi) total, with the French and Belgian portions
Largest lakes
IJsselmeer (artificial) 1,100 km² (425 sq mi)
Markermeer (artificial) 700 km² (270 sq mi)
Largest islands
Bonaire 288 km² (111 sq mi) in the Dutch Caribbean
Goeree-Overflakkee 263 km² (102 sq mi)
Schouwen-Duiveland 223 km² (86 sq mi)
Texel 161 km² (62 sq mi)
Terschelling 86 km² (33 sq mi)


   The Netherlands is administratively divided into 12 provinces, with additionally three municipalities / islands in the Caribbean Sea, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba; Gelderland and North Brabant are the two largest provinces, with an area of just under 5,000 km², while South Holland is the one with the largest population.

   The capital Amsterdam is the city that comes closest to one million inhabitants, while both Rotterdam and The Hague exceed 500,000 people; the main cities are found especially in the central part of the country, with other areas that are less densely populated.