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Germany flag
Federal Republic of Germany
Bundesrepublik Deutschland
   Germany is one of the most important countries both politically and above all economically; defeated in both world conflicts was able to get up quickly and return leader in various industrial sectors; divided in 1949 in western and eastern Germany and reunited in 1990. The territory is characterized by a lowland in the north part of the country (bounded by the North Sea and the Baltic Sea) and by the northern offshoots of the Alps to the south, in the middle there are flat, hilly and mountainous areas.
Government type Federal parliamentary republic
Area 357,581 km² (138,063 sq mi)
Population 80,220,000 inh. (2011 census)
Population 83,591,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 234 inh/km² (605 inh/mi²)
Capital Berlin (3,677,000 pop., 4,012,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Euro
Human development index 0.942 (9th place)
Languages German (official), Danish, Sorbian, Frisian
Life expectancy M 78 years, F 83 years
Location in Europe


Denmark NORTH
Netherlands, Belgium, Luxembourg and France WEST
Switzerland and Austria SOUTH
Czech Republic and Poland EAST


Largest cities
Berlin 3,677,000 pop., 4,012,000 urban aggl.
Hamburg 1,854,000 pop., 2,019,000 urban aggl.
Munich 1,488,000 pop., 2,038,000 urban aggl.
Cologne 1,073,000 pop., 2,161,000 urban aggl.
Frankfurt 759,000 pop., 2,002,000 urban aggl.
Stuttgart 626,000 pop., 1,374,000 urban aggl.
Düsseldorf 619,000 pop., 6,237,000 urban aggl.
Leipzig 602,000 pop.
Dortmund 587,000 pop.
Essen 579,000 pop.
Bremen 563,000 pop.
Dresden 555,000 pop., 781,000 urban aggl.
Hannover 536,000 pop., 689,000 urban aggl.
Nuremberg 511,000 pop., 657,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Zugspitze 2,962 m (9,718 ft)
Longest rivers
Danube 2,858 km (1,776 mi) total, 647 km (402 mi) in Germany
Rhine 1,320 km (820 mi) total, 865 km (537 mi) in Germany
Elbe 1,094 km (680 mi) total, 727 km (452 mi) in Germany
Oder 866 km (538 mi) total, 179 km (111 mi) in Germany
Moselle 545 km (339 mi) total, 242 km (150 mi) in Germany
Main 527 km (327 mi)
Inn 510 km (317 mi) total, 218 km (135 mi) in Germany
Largest lakes
Constance 536 km² (207 sq mi) total, 303 km² (117 sq mi) in Germany
Müritz 110 km² (42 sq mi)
Chiemsee 80 km² (31 sq mi)
Schweriner See 61 km² (24 sq mi)
Starnberger See 56 km² (22 sq mi)
Largest islands
Rügen 930 km² (359 sq mi)
Usedom 445 km² (172 sq mi) total, 373 km² (144 sq mi) in Germany
Fehmarn 185 km² (71 sq mi)
Sylt 102 km² (39 sq mi)


   Germany is a federation made up of 16 states (Länder), of which three are citizen-type (Hamburg, Berlin and Bremen); Bavaria, which occupies the south-eastern area of the country, is the largest and second most populated Land after North Rhine-Westphalia, which includes the highly industrialized region of the Ruhr and several large cities on the shores of the Rhine river.

   80 cities have at least 100,000 inhabitants, of which 4 exceed one million people, Berlin, Hamburg, Munich and Cologne; as can be seen from the second map, the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan area includes a large number of these urban centers, while other areas are less populous, albeit with a medium-high population density.