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Poland flag
Republic of Poland
Rzeczpospolita Polska
   Poland is located in central-eastern Europe south of the Baltic Sea and due to its geographical position (between Germany and Russia) it has often been at the center of continental historical events. The territory is largely flat, only in the extreme southern part there are some significant reliefs; thanks also to the favorable climate, Poland has always been able to take advantage of large arable land, in the industrial sector it can count on extensive deposits of coal and lignite.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 312,705 km² (120,736 sq mi)
Population 38,036,000 inh. (2021 census)
Population density 122 inh/km² (315 inh/mi²)
Capital Warsaw (1,860,000 pop., 1,963,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Polish zloty
Human development index 0.876 (34th place)
Languages Polish (official)
Life expectancy M 72 years, F 80 years
Location in Europe


Germany WEST
Czech Republic and Slovakia SOUTH
Belarus and Ukraine EAST
Lithuania NORTH-EAST
Russia (Kaliningrad) NORTH
Baltic Sea NORTH


Largest cities
Warsaw 1,860,000 pop., 1,963,000 urban aggl.
Krakow 801,000 pop.
Wroclaw 673,000 pop.
Lodz 671,000 pop., 799,000 urban aggl.
Poznan 547,000 pop., 660,000 urban aggl.
Gdansk 486,000 pop., 845,000 urban aggl.
Szczecin 396,000 pop.
Katowice 286,000 pop., 1,894,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Rysy 2,499 m (8,199 ft)
Longest rivers
Vistula 1,022 km (635 mi)
Oder 866 km (538 mi) total, 752 km (467 mi) in Poland
Warta 795 km (494 mi)
Bug 774 km (481 mi) total, 590 km (367 mi) in Poland
Largest lakes
Sniardwy 113 km² (44 sq mi)
Mamry 103 km² (40 sq mi)
Lebsko 71 km² (27 sq mi)
Dabie 56 km² (22 sq mi)
Largest islands
Usedom 445 km² (172 sq mi) total, 72 km² (28 sq mi) in Poland
Wolin 265 km² (102 sq mi)


   Poland is administratively divided into 16 voivodships, with that of Masovia being both the largest and the most populated, also because the capital Warsaw is located here; the voivodeship of Greater Poland follows in terms of surface area, while Silesia is second in terms of the number of inhabitants.

   Only one city exceeds one million inhabitants, with 4 other urban centers having at least 500,000 people; the distribution of the main cities is fairly well balanced, given that each voivodeship has at least one inhabited center over 100,000 inhabitants; however, one immediately notices a large number of urban centers in the industrial region of Silesia, around Katowice.