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Panamá flag
Republic of Panamá
República de Panamá
   This country occupies the last section of Central America and borders Colombia to the west, thus acting as a 'glue' with South America; Panamá is bounded by both the Atlantic and the Pacific, connected to each other by the famous canal of the same name built in the early 1900s. The territory is rather rough and crossed by various mountain ranges, even the coasts are very jagged and there are numerous islands, especially in the Pacific Ocean.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 75,320 km² (29,081 sq mi)
Population 4,203,000 inh. (2023 census)
Population density 56 inh/km² (145 inh/mi²)
Capital Panamá City (1,133,000 pop., 2,067,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Panamanian balboa, United States dollar
Human development index 0.805 (61st place)
Languages Spanish (official), English, indigenous languages
Life expectancy M 75 years, F 81 years
Location in North-Central America


Costa Rica WEST
Pacific Ocean SOUTH
Atlantic Ocean (Caribbean Sea) NORTH


Largest cities
Panamá City 1,133,000 pop., 2,067,000 urban aggl.
La Chorrera 206,000 pop.
Colón 159,000 pop.
Vista Alegre 129,000 pop.
David 104,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Volcán Barú 3,475 m (11,401 ft)
Longest rivers
Chucunaque 231 km (144 mi)
Tuira 230 km (143 mi)
Bayano 206 km (128 mi)
Largest lakes
Gatun Lake (artificial) 425 km² (164 sq mi)
Largest islands
Coiba 493 km² (190 sq mi)
Isla del Rey 234 km² (90 sq mi)
Cébaco 80 km² (31 sq mi)
Colón 61 km² (24 sq mi)


   Panama is administratively divided into 10 provinces and 4 indigenous territories, called comarche; Darien, in the eastern extremity on the border with Colombia and South America, and Veraguas are the two largest provinces, both with an area greater than 10,000 km², while Panama is by far the most populated province, since it has over 1/3 of the population.

   Half of the 18 urban centers with at least 20,000 inhabitants are located in the immediate vicinity of the capital Panamá City, which hosts over 2 million people in its agglomeration; among the other cities we have one at the other mouth of the Panama Canal, on the Atlantic Ocean, as well as other inhabited centers in the western part of the country, with the easternmost provinces instead totally devoid of large settlements.

Panamá City