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Egypt flag
Arab Republic of Egypt
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
   Surely Egypt, with its ancient civilization, has had a great role in world history, today it is still one of the leading countries in Africa and given its proximity to the Middle East it also plays a key role in this sense. Egypt occupies the northeastern part of the continent (6% is however in Asia) and is inextricably linked to the longest river on the planet, the Nile, where over 95% of the population is concentrated, given that the rest of its territory is almost totally occupied by the desert.
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Area 1,010,408 kmē (390,121 sq mi)
Population 94,799,000 inh. (2017 census)
Population 106,045,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 105 inh/kmē (272 inh/miē)
Capital Cairo (10,312,000 pop., 22,679,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Egyptian pound
Human development index 0.731 (97th place)
Languages Arabic (official), Egyptian Arabic, English, French
Life expectancy M 70 years, F 74 years
Location in Africa


Libya WEST
Israel and Palestine (Gaza Strip) NORTH-EAST
Mediterranean Sea NORTH
Red Sea EAST


Largest cities
Cairo 10,312,000 pop., 22,679,000 urban aggl.
Alexandria 5,552,000 pop.
Giza 4,367,000 pop.
Shubra al-Khaymah 1,240,000 pop.
Port Said 822,000 pop.
Al-Mansurah 622,000 pop., 993,000 urban aggl.
Al-Mahallah al-Kubra 593,000 pop., 942,000 urban aggl.
Tanta 577,000 pop., 731,000 urban aggl.
Suez 535,000 pop.
Asyut 529,000 pop.
Fayoum 519,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Mount Catherine 2,641 m (8,665 ft)
Longest rivers
Nile 6,850 km (4,256 mi) total, 1,532 km (952 mi) in Egypt
Largest lakes
Lake Nasser (artificial) 6,000 kmē (2,317 sq mi) total, 5,250 kmē (2,027 sq mi) in Egypt
Lake Manzala 1,360 kmē (525 sq mi)
Lake Bardawil 668 kmē (258 sq mi)
Largest islands
Tiran 80 kmē (31 sq mi)
Shadwan 42.5 kmē (16.4 sq mi)


   Egypt is administratively divided into 27 governorates, with Al-Wadi al-Jadid occupying much of the desert area west of the Nile and making up more than 40% of the territory, but having a population density of just 0,59 inhabitants per kmē; the two governorates of Cairo and Giza, on the other hand, are the most populous, with the first over 10 million inhabitants and the second over 9 million people.

   The distribution of the population is very unbalanced towards the area between Cairo, Alexandria and Port Said and to a lesser extent along the banks of the Nile in the central and southern part of the country, with very few relevant urban centers in other areas.