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Rwanda flag
Republic of Rwanda
Repubulika y'u Rwanda
République du Rwanda
Jamhuri ya Rwanda
   Rwanda is a small mountainous country in central Africa, devastated in 1994 by a genocide, especially against the Tutsis, with over 800,000 deaths. The average altitude of Rwanda stands at 1,500-2,000 meters, with the highest peaks exceeding 4,000 meters; the difficult political and conflict situation between the two prevailing ethnic groups of the country have had a negative impact on economic development.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 26,338 km² (10,169 sq mi)
Population 13,246,000 inh. (2022 census)
Population density 503 inh/km² (1,303 inh/mi²)
Capital Kigali (1,517,000 pop., 1,620,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Rwandan franc
Human development index 0.534 (165th place)
Languages Kinyarwanda, English, French, Swahili (all official)
Life expectancy M 68 years, F 71 years


Largest cities
Kigali 1,517,000 pop., 1,620,000 urban aggl.
Gisenyi 252,000 pop.
Ruhengeri 153,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Mount Karisimbi 4,507 m (14,787 ft)
Longest rivers
Nile 6,850 km (4,256 mi) total, small portion in the initial part
Kagera 690 km (429 mi) total, with sections in Burundi, Tanzania and Uganda, considered the source branch of the Nile
Nyabarongo 305 km (190 mi)
Largest lakes
Kivu 2,700 km² (1,042 sq mi) total, 1,150 km² (444 sq mi) in Rwanda
Rweru 100 km² (39 sq mi) total, 20 km² (7.7 sq mi) in Rwanda
Largest islands
Nkombo (in Lake Kivu) 22 km² (8.5 sq mi)


   Rwanda is administratively divided into 5 provinces, one of which corresponding to the territory adjacent to the capital Kigali; the Eastern province is both the largest and the most populated one.

   According to the data of the last census held in 2012 there were 15 inhabited centers with more than 15,000 inhabitants, but only the capital and Gisenyi could be considered real cities; the distribution of the main settlements is quite well distributed over the territory.