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Oman flag
Sultanate of Oman
Saltanat 'Uman
   Oman occupies the extreme south-eastern edge of the Arabian Peninsula and is bounded by the Indian Ocean. The territory is largely arid and is crossed in the northern part by a mountain range; like other Arab countries, Oman also has oil and natural gas fields, which are the basis of its economy.
Government type Absolute monarchy
Area 309,500 kmē (119,499 sq mi)
Population 4,471,000 inh. (2020 census)
Population 4,816,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 15.5 inh/kmē (40 inh/miē)
Capital Muscat (32,100 pop., 1,272,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Omani rial
Human development index 0.816 (54th place)
Languages Arabic (official), English
Life expectancy M 76 years, F 80 years
Location in Asia


United Arab Emirates NORTH-WEST
Saudi Arabia WEST
Strait of Hormuz NORTH
Indian Ocean SOUTH and EAST
United Arab Emirates divide the territory of the country into two parts, of which the northernmost one, overlooking the Strait of Hormuz, the Governorate of Musandam (1,800 kmē), is considerably smaller than the other; this territory includes the Madha enclave (75 kmē), which is located halfway between the two sections of the country; also inside there is a further enclave of the United Arab Emirates, Nahwa, about five square kilometers wide.


Largest cities
As Seeb 471,000 pop., 1,332,000 urban aggl., largest city in the agglomeration of the capital Muscat
Bawshar 363,000 pop.
Salalah 294,000 pop.
Mutrah 231,000 pop.
Sohar 219,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Jebel Shams 3,009 m (9,872 ft)
Longest rivers
Only non-permanent rivers
Largest lakes
Only non-permanent lakes
Largest islands
Masirah 649 kmē (251 sq mi)
Al-Hallaniyah 56 kmē (22 sq mi)


   Oman is administratively divided into 11 governorates; Dhofar and Al Wusta, in the central-southern part of the territory, are by far the two largest governorates and together make up just under 3/5 of the surface area of the country, while the governorate of the capital Muscat is the most populated and only with more than one million inhabitants.

   In Oman there are 13 cities with at least 50,000 inhabitants, but none of these exceed half a million people, even if some are part of the same urban agglomeration, in the area of the capital Muscat; as you can see from the second map all the major cities are located in the northern part of the territory, the only exception being Salalah.