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Finland flag
Republic of Finland
Suomen tasavalta
Republiken Finland
   Finland, in northern Europe, coincides with the eastern part of the Scandinavian Peninsula and is bounded for a long stretch by the Baltic Sea; only in the northern part there are some mountainous reliefs of a certain extension, but most of Finland is flat and covered with forests (72% of the country), as well as having an impressive number of lakes; the population is concentrated mainly in the south, which offers better climatic conditions. The Åland Islands are an autonomous Swedish-speaking region under Finnish sovereignty.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 338,462 km² (130,681 sq mi)
Population 5,569,000 inh. (2023)
Population density 16 inh/km² (43 inh/mi²)
Capital Helsinki (666,000 pop., 1,223,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Euro
Human development index 0.940 (11th place)
Languages Finnish, Swedish (both official), Sámi
Life expectancy M 80 years, F 85 years
Location in Europe


Norway NORTH
Sweden WEST
Russia EAST
Baltic Sea WEST and SOUTH


Largest cities
Helsinki 666,000 pop., 1,223,000 urban aggl.
Espoo 307,000 pop.
Tampere 250,000 pop., 350,000 urban aggl.
Vantaa 244,000 pop.
Oulu 212,000 pop.
Turku 198,000 pop., 281,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Halti 1,324 m (4,344 ft)
Longest rivers
Torne 525 km (326 mi) total, only the last part that marks the border with Sweden is in Finland
Kemijoki 500 km (311 mi)
Iijoki 370 km (230 mi)
Largest lakes
Saimaa 4,400 km² (1,699 sq mi)
Inari 1,082 km² (418 sq mi)
Päijänne 1,082 km² (418 sq mi)
Oulujärvi 912 km² (352 sq mi)
Pielinen 895 km² (346 sq mi)
Largest islands
Soisalo 1,540 km² (595 sq mi)
Fasta Åland 689 km² (266 sq mi)
Kemiönsaari 545 km² (210 sq mi)
Hailuoto 201 km² (78 sq mi)


   Finland is divided into 19 regions, with the Swedish-speaking Åland Islands having special status; Lapland, which constitutes the northernmost part of the country, is by far the largest region, while Uusimaa, where the capital is located, is the one with the largest population, almost 1/3 of the entire country.

   There are 41 inhabited centers with at least 25,000 inhabitants, of which about half stop below the limit of 50,000 units; the cities are concentrated mainly in the southern area, while in the other parts of Finland they are more isolated and distant from each other.