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United Kingdom flag
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
   Undoubtedly, the United Kingdom has played a preponderant role in world history in recent centuries, starting with the industrial revolution to continue with the great colonial empire extended over all areas of the globe. The United Kingdom is made up of Great Britain (which has 3 distinct entities in terms of history and culture: England, Wales and Scotland) and Northern Ireland; the territory is mainly hilly and flat, the mountains never reach great altitudes even if in Scotland they are quite rugged; there are also numerous islands that surround the main one.
Government type Parliamentary constitutional monarchy
Area 242,495 kmē (93,628 sq mi)
Population 63,182,000 inh. (2011 census)
Population 67,844,000 inh. (2023 est.)
Population density 280 inh/kmē (725 inh/miē)
Capital London (8,800,000 pop., 11,262,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Pound sterling
Human development index 0.929 (18th place)
Languages English (official), Irish, Scots, Welsh (regional languages)
Life expectancy M 79 years, F 83 years
Dependencies Gibraltar (6.8 kmē - 2.6 sq mi, 32,600 pop.)
Dependencies Guernsey (78 kmē - 30 sq mi, 66,200 pop.)
Dependencies Isle of Man (572 kmē - 221 sq mi, 84,100 pop.)
Dependencies Jersey (118 kmē - 46 sq mi, 103,300 pop.)

Dependencies Anguilla (102 kmē - 39 sq mi, 15,900 pop.)
Dependencies Bermuda (54 kmē - 21 sq mi, 63,900 pop.)
Dependencies British Virgin Islands (151 kmē - 58 sq mi, 31,800 pop.)
Dependencies Cayman Islands (264 kmē - 102 sq mi, 81,500 pop.)
Dependencies Montserrat (104 kmē - 40 sq mi, 4,400 pop.)
Dependencies Turks and Caicos Islands (616 kmē - 238 sq mi, 46,400 pop.)

Dependencies British Indian Ocean Territory (54 kmē - 21 sq mi, 3,000 pop.)
Dependencies Falkland Islands (16,239 kmē - 6,270 sq mi, 3,800 pop.)
Dependencies Pitcairn Islands (43 kmē - 17 sq mi, 50 pop.)
Dependencies Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha (394 kmē - 152 sq mi, 5,300 pop.)

Dependencies Antarctica between 60° SOUTH parallel and 20°-80° WEST meridians, including South Orkney Islands and Southern Shetland (388,500 kmē - 150,000 sq mi)
Location in Europe


Ireland (Northern Ireland) SOUTH and WEST
Irish Sea WEST
Atlantic Ocean NORTH, WEST and SOUTH
North Sea EAST


Largest cities
London 8,800,000 pop., 11,262,000 urban aggl.
Birmingham 1,145,000 pop., 2,643,000 urban aggl.
Glasgow 632,000 pop., 1,270,000 urban aggl.
Sheffield 557,000 pop., 640,000 urban aggl.
Manchester 552,000 pop., 2,767,000 urban aggl.
Leeds 516,000 pop., 1,916,000 urban aggl.
Edinburgh 507,000 pop., 542,000 urban aggl.
Liverpool 486,000 pop., 827,000 urban aggl.
Leicester 473,000 pop., 501,000 urban aggl.
Bristol 472,000 pop., 610,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Ben Nevis 1,344 m (4,409 ft)
Longest rivers
Severn 354 km (220 mi)
Thames 346 km (215 mi)
Largest lakes
Lough Neagh 383 kmē (148 sq mi)
Lough Erne 112 kmē (43 sq mi)
Loch Lomond 71 kmē (27 sq mi)
Loch Ness 56 kmē (22 sq mi)
Largest islands
Great Britain 209,331 kmē (80,823 sq mi)
Ireland 84,421 kmē (32,595 sq mi) total, 14,371 kmē (5,549 sq mi) in United Kingdom
Lewis and Harris 2,179 kmē (841 sq mi)
Skye 1,656 kmē (639 sq mi)
Mainland (Shetland) 967 kmē (373 sq mi)
Mull 875 kmē (338 sq mi)
Anglesey 714 kmē (276 sq mi)
Islay 620 kmē (239 sq mi)
Mainland (Orkney) 523 kmē (202 sq mi)


   In the first map, countries (Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales) and the 9 regions of England have been merged; Scotland makes up about 1/3 of the entire territory, but being less densely populated than the UK average, it is exceeded in population by most of the English regions, with South East and Greater London standing at around 9 million people.

   The capital London is by far the most populous city in the United Kingdom and one of the largest in Europe, with only Birmingham among the others over a million inhabitants, even if there are important urban agglomerations that definitely exceed this limit; however, there are 84 cities with over one hundred thousand inhabitants, with 7 of these in the range between 500,000 and 1,000,000 people.



(click to enlarge)


Isle of Skye
Isle of Skye


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