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Perú flag
Republic of Peru
República del Perú
   Peru is the largest of the Andean countries and the third of the continent, it is located in the north-western area of South America and is bounded by the Pacific Ocean. Half of the territory is covered by forests, above all because the part beyond the Andes corresponds to the Amazon, the coastal strip is very narrow and arid, pressed by the imposing mountain ranges; the economy can count on good mining resources.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 1,285,216 km² (496,225 sq mi)
Population 31,237,000 inh. (2017 census)
Population 34,683,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 27 inh/km² (70 inh/mi²)
Capital Lima (10,004,000 pop., 10,556,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Peruvian sol
Human development index 0.762 (84th place)
Languages Spanish, Quechua, Aymará (all official)
Life expectancy M 75 years, F 79 years
Location in South America


Ecuador and Colombia NORTH
Brazil EAST
Pacific Ocean WEST


Largest cities
Lima 10,004,000 pop., 10,556,000 urban aggl.
Arequipa 981,000 pop.
Trujillo 957,000 pop.
Chiclayo 642,000 pop.
Callao 528,000 pop.
Piura 522,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Huascarán 6,768 m (22,205 ft)
Yerupajá 6,632 m (21,759 ft)
Coropuna 6,425 m (21,079 ft)
Longest rivers
Amazon 6,437 km (4,000 mi) total, 713 km (443 mi) in Perú
Purus 3,210 km (1,979 mi) total, only first small section is in Perú
Juruá 2,400 km (1,491 mi) total, first short part in Perú
Putumayo 1,610 km (1,000 mi) total, 1,380 km (857 mi) in Perú
Marañón 1,414 km (879 mi)
Yavarí 1,184 km (736 mi) total, the initial and central parts mark the border with Brazil, where it then flows at the end of its course
Huallaga 1,138 km (707 mi)
Urubamba 724 km (450 mi)
Largest lakes
Titicaca 8,372 km² (3,232 sq mi) total, 5,038 km² (3,130 sq mi) in Perú
Lake Junin 530 km² (205 sq mi), medium surface area
Largest islands
San Lorenzo 16.5 km² (6.4 sq mi)
Lobos de Tierra 16 km² (6.2 sq mi)


   At the administrative level, Peru is divided into 25 regions, in addition to the special district of the capital; Loreto, which occupies the north-eastern part of the country, is by far the largest region, with over 350,000 km² of surface area, just under 30% of the Peruvian territory; almost 10 million people live in the district of the capital, followed very far by the regions of Piura and La Libertad, both with just over 2 million inhabitants.

   Lima is by far the most populated city and one of the largest metropolises in South America, with the addition of only Arequipa just over a million inhabitants and Trujillo very close to this limit; most of the main urban centers are located along the coast or close to the Andes, while the inland regions occupied by the Amazon rainforest are sparsely populated.