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Brazil flag
Federative Republic of Brazil
República Federativa do Brasil
   Brazil is by extension and population the most important country in South America and borders with most of the other nations of the continent; given the extension of the territory it is not possible to define Brazil in a precise way, there are huge tropical forests (Amazonia above all), hilly and mountainous areas and wide coastal plains; the composition of the population is also very varied.
Government type Federal presidential republic
Area 8,510,346 km² (3,285,863 sq mi)
Population 190,756,000 inh. (2010 census)
Population 214,829,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 25 inh/km² (65 inh/mi²)
Capital Brasilia (2,988,000 pop., 3,507,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Brazilian real
Human development index 0.765 (84th place)
Languages Portuguese (official), Amerindian languages
Life expectancy M 73 years, F 80 years
Location in South America


French Guiana, Suriname, Guyana and Venezuela NORTH
Perù and Bolivia WEST
Paraguay and Argentina SOUTH-WEST
Uruguay SOUTH
Atlantic Ocean EAST


Largest cities
São Paulo 12,285,000 pop., 23,086,000 urban aggl.
Rio de Janeiro 6,776,000 pop., 12,592,000 urban aggl.
Brasilia 2,988,000 pop., 3,507,000 urban aggl.
Salvador 2,900,000 pop., 3,462,000 urban aggl.
Fortaleza 2,703,000 pop., 3,672,000 urban aggl.
Belo Horizonte 2,531,000 pop., 5,328,000 urban aggl.
Manaus 2,244,000 pop., 2,356,000 urban aggl.
Curitiba 1,964,000 pop., 3,218,000 urban aggl.
Recife 1,661,000 pop., 3,909,000 urban aggl.
Goiânia 1,550,000 pop., 2,642,000 urban aggl.
Porto Alegre 1,493,000 pop., 3,625,000 urban aggl.
Belém 1,494,000 pop., 2,247,000 urban aggl.
Guarulhos 1,405,000 pop.
Campinas 1,202,000 pop., 2,898,000 urban aggl.
São Gonçalo 1,098,000 pop.
São Luís 1,054,000 pop., 1,538,000 urban aggl.
Maceió 1,031,000 pop., 1,148,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Pico da Neblina 2,994 m (9,823 ft)
Longest rivers
Amazon 6,437 km (4,000 mi) total, including Peruvian and Colombian parts
Paraná 4,880 km (3,032 mi) total, including Paraguayan and Argentine sections
Madeira 3,250 km (2,019 mi) total, with the Bolivian section
Purus 3,210 km (1,979 mi) total, including Peruvian part
São Francisco 2,915 km (1,811 mi)
Tocantins 2,640 km (1,640 mi)
Araguaia 2,625 km (1,631 mi)
Paraguay 2,620 km (1,628 mi) total, with Bolivian, Paraguayan and Argentine sections
Japurá 2,415 km (1,501 mi) total, 1,230 km (764 mi) in Brazil
Juruá 2,400 km (1,491 mi) total, including Peruvian part
Rio Negro 2,250 km (1,398 mi) total, including Colombian and Venezuelan sections
Xingu 2,100 km (1,305 mi)
Tapajos 1,992 km (1,238 mi)
Largest lakes
Lagoa dos Patos 9,850 km² (3,803 sq mi)
Laguna Merin 3,750 km² (1,448 sq mi) total, including Uruguayan part
Largest islands
Marajó 40,100 km² (15,483 sq mi)
Bananal 19,162 km² (7,398 sq mi)
West Tupinambarana 7,700 km² (2,973 sq mi)
Caviana 5,000 km² (1,931 sq mi)
Ilha Grande do Gurupá 4,864 km² (1,878 sq mi)


   Brazil is made up of 26 federal states, plus the capital Brasilia with a special district; Amazonas and Pará, in the north-western part, are the two largest states, both with an area of over one million square kilometers, while São Paulo clearly excels in number of inhabitants, more than double compared to the second most populous state, Minas Gerais.

   The country has 17 cities with over 1 million inhabitants, starting with São Paulo, the largest metropolis in South America; many of the major urban centers are located along the coastal strip on the Atlantic Ocean, with an unbalanced distribution towards the south of Brazil and partly the north-east, while in the western area there are no major cities, if we exclude Manaus, the capital of Amazonas.



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Rio de Janeiro
Rio de Janeiro

Iguazú Falls
Iguazú Falls


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