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Venezuela flag
Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela
República Bolivariana de Venezuela
   Venezuela is located in the northeastern part of South America and has a long stretch of coastline on the Atlantic Ocean. The territory of the country is quite varied as to the west we find the last Andean offshoots, while the central area is flat and rich in rivers, with the Guayana massif characterizing the south-eastern area; oil is the driving force of the Venezuelan economy.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 916,445 km² (353,841 sq mi)
Population 27,228,000 inh. (2011 census)
Population 33,360,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 36 inh/km² (94 inh/mi²)
Capital Caracas (2,088,000 pop., 3,026,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Venezuelan bolívar soberano
Human development index 0.691 (120th place)
Languages Spanish (official), Indigenous dialects
Life expectancy M 69 years, F 76 years
Location in South America


Colombia WEST
Brazil SOUTH
Guyana EAST
Atlantic Ocean NORTH


Largest cities
Maracaibo 2,263,000 pop., 2,565,000 urban aggl.
Caracas 2,088,000 pop., 3,026,000 urban aggl.
Valencia 1,586,000 pop., 1,833,000 urban aggl.
Barquisimeto 1,089,000 pop., 1,185,000 urban aggl.
Ciudad Guayana 898,000 pop.
Maturin 508,000 pop.
Maracay 465,000 pop., 1,202,000 urban aggl.
Barcelona 454,000 pop., 741,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Pico Bolívar 4,978 m (16,332 ft)
Longest rivers
Rio Negro 2,250 km (1,398 mi) total, 265 km (165 mi) in Venezuela
Orinoco 2,140 km (1,330 mi)
Arauca 1,050 km (652 mi) total, including the initial section in Colombia
Caroní 952 km (592 mi)
Apure 820 km (510 mi)
Largest lakes
Lake Valencia 364 km² (141 sq mi)
Largest islands
Margarita 1,020 km² (394 sq mi)
La Tortuga 156 km² (60 sq mi)


   Venezuela is divided into 23 states, to which must be added two special entities, the federal district of the capital Caracas and the federal dependencies made up of some islands in the Caribbean Sea; the two south-eastern states of Bolívar and Amazonas are the largest and together make up almost half of the country's surface area, while the states of Zulia and Miranda are those with the largest number of inhabitants.

   In the country there are 4 cities over a million inhabitants, with the capital slightly surpassed by Maracaibo; the distribution of the main inhabited centers is very unbalanced towards the north, while the southern area is totally devoid of major cities.