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Nigeria flag
Federal Republic of Nigeria
   Nigeria is by far the most populous country in Africa and has recently exceeded 200 million inhabitants; it is located in the northeastern part of the Gulf of Guinea. The territory is crossed by various mountain ranges and hilly areas in the central and northern part, while it is flat towards the south; the subsoil is rich in resources (oil in the first place), the soil is fertile and rich in water, but the internal tensions between the various ethnic groups have so far not allowed adequate economic development.
Government type Federal presidential republic
Area 923,769 kmē (356,669 sq mi)
Population 229,152,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 248 inh/kmē (642 inh/miē)
Capital Abuja (1,236,000 pop., 2,420,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Nigerian naira
Human development index 0.535 (163rd place)
Languages English (official), Hausa, Ibo, Yoruba and other regional languages
Life expectancy M 55 years, F 57 years
Location in Africa


Benin WEST
Chad and Cameroon EAST
Atlantic Ocean SOUTH


Largest cities
Lagos 9,000,000 pop., 14,540,000 urban aggl.
Kano 3,626,000 pop., 4,670,000 urban aggl.
Ibadan 3,565,000 pop., 3,657,000 urban aggl.
Kaduna 1,647,000 pop., 1,880,000 urban aggl.
Onitsha 1,499,000 pop., 7,205,000 urban aggl.
Abuja 1,236,000 pop., 2,420,000 urban aggl.
Ilorin 1,233,000 pop., 1,321,000 urban aggl.
Port Harcourt 1,149,000 pop., 3,429,000 urban aggl.
Benin City 1,125,000 pop., 1,905,000 urban aggl.
Enugu 1,145,000 pop.
Aba 1,084,000 pop.
Warry 1,055,000 pop., 1,403,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Chappal Waddi 2,419 m (7,936 ft)
Longest rivers
Niger 4,180 km (2,597 mi) total, 1,175 km (730 mi) in Nigeria
Benue 1,085 km (674 mi) total, 796 km (495 mi) in Nigeria
Sokoto 627 km (390 mi)
Kaduna 547 km (340 mi)
Cross 539 km (335 mi)
Gongola 531 km (330 mi)
Largest lakes
Kainji Lake (artificial) 1,243 kmē (480 sq mi)


   Nigeria is a federation made up of 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja; Niger, in the central-western area and Borno, in the north-eastern end of the country are the two largest states, while those of Kano, Lagos and Katsina are the three most populous and the sole with more than 10 million people.

   There are about twenty cities with at least half a million inhabitants, with Lagos standing out above all; the geographical distribution is rather unbalanced towards the southern states, with several regions lacking large urban centers.