Home > Africa > Chad
Chad flag
Republic of Chad
Jumhuriyat Tshad
République du Tchad
   Chad is a landlocked country located south of Libya and west of Sudan; as can be seen from the borders it has been defined more by the division made by the French and English imperialisms, than following geographical and ethnic characteristics, with obvious consequences on political stability always in difficult balance. The territory of Chad is largely made up of a low plateau (300-500 m.), desertic in the northern part (Sahara), while in the southern part the landscapes are of the savannah and equatorial type near the rivers.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 1,284,000 km² (495,755 sq mi)
Population 18,687,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 14.5 inh/km² (38 inh/mi²)
Capital N'Djamena (1,769,000 pop.)
Currency Central African CFA franc
Human development index 0.394 (190th place)
Languages Arabic, French (official), regional languages
Life expectancy M 54 years, F 55 years
Location in Africa


Niger and Nigeria WEST
Central African Republic SOUTH
Sudan EAST


Largest cities
N'Djamena 1,769,000 pop.
Moundou 158,000 pop.
Sarh 134,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Emi Koussi 3,415 m (11,204 ft)
Longest rivers
Chari 950 km (590 mi)
Largest lakes
Lake Chad 1,540 km² (595 sq mi) total, including section in Cameroon, it was much wider 50 years ago (25,300 km² / 9,768 sq mi)
Lake Fitri 500 km² (193 sq mi), medium surface area in the rainy season


   Chad is administratively divided into 23 regions, with Tibesti being both the largest and the least populated, as it is located in the middle of the Sahara desert; the region with special status of the capital N'Djamena is, on the other hand, the one with the smallest area, but also with the largest number of inhabitants, with 3 other regions that slightly exceed one million people.

   Apart from the capital N'Djamena, which in the last census was close to one million inhabitants (a threshold that has now been greatly exceeded), there are no other large cities, with a total of 16 urban centers with at least 30,000 inhabitants; in the southernmost area of the territory there is a greater concentration of towns, due to the more favorable environmental conditions compared to the arid northern area.