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Bosnia and Herzegovina
Bosna i Hercegovina
   Bosnia and Herzegovina is a country born in 1992 from the break-up of Yugoslavia and morphologically consists of two regions, Bosnia in the north and Herzegovina in the south; the territory is mainly mountainous, hilly-flat in the northern part, there are also a few kilometers of coasts (Adriatic Sea) south-west of Mostar. Bosnia and Herzegovina has a particular history given that it was heavily affected by the Ottoman domination and is still predominantly Muslim, but with strong Catholic and Orthodox components, at the basis of the tough clashes between 1992 and 1994 between Serbs, Croats and Muslims.
Government type Federal parliamentary republic
Area 51,201 kmē (19,769 sq mi)
Population 3,531,000 inh. (2013 census)
Population 3,234,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 63 inh/kmē (164 inh/miē)
Capital Sarajevo (276,000 pop., 430,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Convertible mark
Human development index 0.780 (73rd place)
Languages Bosnian, Serbian, Croatian (all official)
Life expectancy M 75 years, F 80 years
Location in Europe


Croatia NORTH and WEST
Serbia EAST
Montenegro SOUTH-EAST
Adriatic Sea WEST


Largest cities
Sarajevo 276,000 pop., 430,000 urban aggl.
Banja Luka 135,000 pop.
Tuzla 74,500 pop.
Zenica 70,600 pop.
Mostar 60,200 pop.
Highest mountains
Maglic 2,386 m (7,828 ft)
Volujak 2,336 m (7,664 ft)
Longest rivers
Sava 947 km (588 mi) total, 331 km (206 mi) in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Drina 346 km (215 mi)
Bosna 271 km (168 mi)
Neretva 225 km (140 mi) total, 218 km (135 mi) in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Una 212 km (132 mi)
Vrbas 192 km (119 mi)
Largest lakes
Busko Jezero (artificial) 55.8 kmē (21.5 sq mi)
Blidinje Jezero 3.5 / 6 kmē (1.4 / 2.3 sq mi) variable seasonally


   The country is divided administratively into the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, which in turn consists of 10 cantons and is inhabited by Bosnians and Bosnian Croats, in the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina and finally in the district of Brcko, where they live both Croats and Serbs, as well as the Bosnian majority.

   There are 15 urban centers with more than 15,000 inhabitants, of which only two exceed one hundred thousand units, Sarajevo and Banja Luka, located further north than the capital.