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Botswana flag
Republic of Botswana
Lefatshe la Botswana
   Country located in the north of South Africa, it is one of the least densely populated on Earth, also because it is mostly desert and arid. Unlike many other African nations, Botswana has managed to have good political stability since independence (1966); mineral resources, diamonds in the first place, are the basis of its economy.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 581,730 kmē (224,607 sq mi)
Population 2,360,000 inh. (2022 census)
Population density 4.1 inh/kmē (10.5 inh/miē)
Capital Gaborone (246,000 pop., 445,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Botswana pula
Human development index 0.693 (117th place)
Languages English, Setswana (both official), regional languages
Life expectancy M 66 years, F 72 years
Location in Africa


Namibia WEST and NORTH
Zambia NORTH
South Africa SOUTH and SOUTH-EAST


Largest cities
Gaborone 246,000 pop., 445,000 urban aggl.
Francistown 103,000 pop.
Mogoditshane 88,000 pop.
Maun 85,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Monalanong Hill 1,494 m (4,902 ft)
Longest rivers
Zambezi 2,700 km (1,678 mi) total, only 300 meters in Botswana
Limpopo 1,800 km (1,118 mi) total, 640 km (398 mi) in Botswana
Okavango 1,600 km (994 mi) total, with sections in Angola and Namibia
Molopo 1,000 km (621 mi) total, including the part in South Africa
Largest lakes
Makgadikgadi 16,000 kmē (6,178 sq mi), maximum surface area in the peak of rainy season
Lake Ngami 770 kmē (297 sq mi), maximum surface area


   Botswana is divided into 10 districts, with also 7 cities and towns (Gaborone, Francistown, Lobatse, Selebi-Phikwe, Jwaneng, Orapa and Sowa) which have an administrative value comparable to the districts (city or town councils); the Central district is both the largest and most populated.

   10 of the 17 major urban centers of the country are located in the area of the capital Gaborone, with the remaining cities always located in the eastern part, with the exception of Maun, the only significant inhabited center in the rest of the territory.