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South Sudan flag
Republic of South Sudan
   South Sudan became independent on July 9, 2011, splitting from what was the largest African state, after a popular referendum that saw 98% of the votes in favor of this solution. This new country has no access to the sea and coincides with the former southern part of Sudan; the territory is largely occupied by tropical forest, it is flat, with the exception of the border areas (in particular with Uganda where it exceeds 3,000 meters in height) and is cut in half by the Nile; the Abyei region is claimed by South Sudan, but currently still occupied by Sudan.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 644,329 kmē (248,777 sq mi)
Population 11,277,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 17.5 inh/kmē (45 inh/miē)
Capital Juba (582,000 pop.)
Currency South Sudanese pound
Human development index 0.385 (191st place)
Languages English (official), Arabic, regional languages
Life expectancy M 56 years, F 59 years


Largest cities
Juba 582,000 pop.
Malakal 161,000 pop.
Wau 151,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Mount Kinyeti 3,187 m (10,456 ft)
Longest rivers
Nile 6,850 km (4,256 mi) total
Bahr al-Arab 800 km (497 mi) total, with the stretch in Sudan
Bahr el Ghazal 716 km (445 mi)
Sobat (with Pibor) 675 km (419 mi)
Largest lakes
No 100 kmē (39 sq mi)


   South Sudan is divided into 10 states, to which must be added the two administrative areas of Pibor and Ruweng, in addition to the special administrative area of Abyei, disputed with Sudan; the state of Western Bahr al-Ghazal is the one with the largest extension, while Jonglei is the most populated one.

   At the 2008 census, only 12 inhabited centers had at least 15,000 inhabitants, with four of these over the hundred thousand mark; the distribution of the major cities and towns is quite homogeneous.