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Italy flag
Italian Republic
Repubblica Italiana
   Italy has been one of the pivotal countries in European history, starting from the times of the Roman Empire; as evidence of this it is the State with the greatest number of architectural, cultural and historical riches. The territory, although not as vast as other countries, has different aspects, such as the Alps to the north and the Apennines to the center-south, as well as more or less vast hilly areas and some plains (the Po Valley the largest); thousands of kilometers of coastline further increase the variety of landscapes.
Government type Parliamentary republic
Area 302,068 km² (116,629 sq mi)
Population 59,434,000 inh. (2011 census)
Population 58,867,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 195 inh/km² (505 inh/mi²)
Capital Rome (2,759,000 pop., 3,214,000 urban aggl.)
Currency Euro
Human development index 0.895 (30th place)
Languages Italian (official), German, Ladin, French, Slovenian
Life expectancy M 80 years, F 85 years
Location in Europe


France WEST
Switzerland and Austria NORTH
Slovenia EAST
Vatican City and San Marino internal to the country
Adriatic Sea EAST
Ligurian Sea and Tyrrhenian Sea SOUTH-WEST
Mediterranean Sea SOUTH and WEST


Largest cities
Rome 2,759,000 pop., 3,214,000 urban aggl.
Milan 1,374,000 pop., 5,488,000 urban aggl.
Naples 910,000 pop., 3,636,000 urban aggl.
Turin 846,000 pop., 1,494,000 urban aggl.
Palermo 627,000 pop., 776,000 urban aggl.
Genoa 559,000 pop.
Bologna 392,000 pop.
Florence 367,000 pop., 768,000 urban aggl.
Bari 316,000 pop.
Catania 297,000 pop., 713,000 urban aggl.
Highest mountains
Mont Blanc 4,809 m (15,778 ft)
Monte Rosa (Nordend Peak) 4,609 m (15,121 ft)
Matterhorn 4,478 m (14,692 ft)
Longest rivers
Drava 749 km (465 mi) total, 10 km (6 mi) in Italy
Po 652 km (405 mi)
Adige 410 km (255 mi)
Tiber 405 km (252 mi)
Largest lakes
Garda 370 km² (143 sq mi)
Maggiore 212 km² (82 sq mi) total, 171 km² (66 sq mi) in Italy
Como 146 km² (56.4 sq mi)
Trasimeno 128 km² (49.4 sq mi)
Bolsena 114 km² (44 sq mi)
Largest islands
Sicily 25,426 km² (9,817 sq mi)
Sardinia 23,813 km² (9,194 sq mi)
Elba 223 km² (86 sq mi)
Sant'Antioco 109 km² (42 sq mi)


   Italy is administratively divided into 20 regions, among which there are 5 with special status and therefore with greater autonomy, these are Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, Trentino-Alto Adige and Valle d'Aosta; Sicily and Piedmont are the two largest regions, with an area of just over 25,000 sq km, while Lombardy is the most populated region, with almost 10 million inhabitants.