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Eritrea flag
State of Eritrea
Hagere Ertra
   Eritrea became independent in 1993 following a long conflict with Ethiopia, which also had consequences in the following years. The territory is quite varied, in fact it has mountains in the central-northern area and plains to the east and along the coast on the Red Sea, in general it is however not exactly ideal for population, especially due to the scarcity of rainfall.
Government type Presidential republic
Area 117,600 kmē (45,406 sq mi)
Population 3,818,000 inh. (2024 est.)
Population density 32 inh/kmē (84 inh/miē)
Capital Asmara (896,000 pop.)
Currency Eritrean nakfa
Human development index 0.492 (176th place)
Languages Tigrinya, Arabic, English (official), Italian, Cushitic languages
Life expectancy M 63 years, F 68 years
Location in Africa


Sudan WEST
Ethiopia SOUTH
Red Sea (Indian Ocean) EAST


Largest cities
Asmara 896,000 pop.
Keren 82,000 pop.
Massawa 53,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Emba Soira 3,018 m (9,902 ft)
Longest rivers
Mareb (or Gash) 680 km (423 mi) total, with sections in Ethiopia and Sudan
Barka 640 km (398 mi) total, including part in Sudan
Tekezé (or Setit) 608 km (378 mi) total, with sections in Ethiopia and Sudan
Anseba 346 km (215 mi)
Largest islands
Dahlak Kebir 663 kmē (256 sq mi)
Nora 105 kmē (41 sq mi)


   Since it became independent, Eritrea has never conducted a census, since the last one dates back to 1984, when it was still part of Ethiopia, with the population data therefore rather uncertain; the country is administratively divided into 6 regions, with that of Gash Barka being the largest, while the Southern is the most populated region.

   Estimates on inhabited centers date back to before 2000, when there were 14 cities and towns, with Asmara clearly more populated than the other settlements; almost all the major urban centers are located not too far from the capital.