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Mali flag
Republic of Mali
République du Mali
   Mali is located in West Africa and is landlocked, a large part of its territory is desert or at least rather arid and unsuitable for agriculture; 90% of the population is concentrated in the south of the country, an area that benefits from a more acceptable climate and higher water resources, thanks to the presence of some rivers (especially Niger).
Government type Semi-presidential republic
Area 1,241,238 km² (479,245 sq mi)
Population 14,529,000 inh. (2009 census)
Population 21,697,000 inh. (2022 est.)
Population density 17.5 inh/km² (45 inh/mi²)
Capital Bamako (2,704,000 pop., 4,014,000 urban aggl.)
Currency West African CFA franc
Human development index 0.428 (186th place)
Languages French (official), Bambara and other regional languages
Life expectancy M 58 years, F 59 years
Location in Africa


Algeria NORTH
Mauritania and Senegal WEST
Ivory Coast and Burkina Faso SOUTH
Niger EAST


Largest cities
Bamako 2,704,000 pop., 4,014,000 urban aggl.
Sikasso 226,000 pop.
Koutiala 141,000 pop.
Ségou 134,000 pop.
Highest mountains
Hombori Tondo 1,155 m (3,789 ft)
Longest rivers
Niger 4,180 km (2,597 mi) total, 1,780 km (1,106 mi) in Mali
Senegal 1,700 km (1,056 mi) total, including sections in Mauritania and Senegal
Bani 1,100 km (684 mi) total, 900 km (559 mi) in Mali
Largest lakes
Lake Faguibine 630 km² (243 sq mi), maximum surface area
Lake Niangay 350 km² (135 sq mi), maximum surface area
Lake Débo 250 km² (97 sq mi), medium surface area


   Mali is administratively composed of 10 regions (Ménaka and Taoudénit still in the implementation phase), plus the special district of the capital. The Timbuktu region constitutes approximately 40% of the country's surface area, pending the completion of the activation process of the Taoudénit region, while the Sikasso region is the most populated, with just over three and a half million inhabitants.

   Only the capital Bamako is a large city, while all the other inhabited centers have 250,000 inhabitants and below; as can be seen from the second map, the main cities are almost all concentrated in the southern part of the territory, where the living and environmental conditions are more favorable.